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Artificial Intelligence Lloyd W. Gathings The company suggests that the program can be used to evaluate your contract against standards and across industries or jurisdictions, “then collaborate with your team of legal professionals throughout negotiation." However, the company continues in its attempts to usurp the work of attorneys using "algorithms to assess fairness and risk." According to the company, all of this is accomplished by transforming: ". . . complex legal language into numeric expressions, where statistical and machine learning techniques can derive meaning. We combine each layer to form higher level concepts from words to sentences to themes. Legal Robot continuously compares thousands of documents to build a legal language model that we use to continuously expand our legal language analysis." The reference to expanding the legal language analysis is at least a tip-of-thehat to the artificial intelligence feature of getting smarter with use. And for convenience, Legal Robot has a mobile app which can be downloaded through the App Store. Kira Systems is another artificial intelligence startup that can handle contract review traditionally done by associate lawyers. Kira Systems is being used by Deloitte, Fenwick and Freshfield, a prominent UK law firm. Freshfield has reported efficiency gains of 40% to 70% using Kira. Other areas now being supported by artificial intelligence include review of ESI for discovery in lawsuits, predicting the outcome of litigation, and determining details of business procedures for improvement. Luminance is one of the available artificial intelligence programs which has the contract review function, but also goes well beyond that to the entire "document room." Luminance markets itself in several areas, one of which is mergers and acquisitions. It claims that Luminance's visualiser can digest the average 34,000 pages of documentation involved in a mergers and acquisitions transaction in one sitting, turning "unstructured data into meaningful information, offering both a global overview of the company and a forensic insight into the documents." As with the other software mentioned, Luminance claims its program is self-learning: "Our ground-breaking algorithms mean Luminance understands language as humans do, rather than simply relying on keyword search. Luminance is self-learning and uncovers anomalies or even missing data without being told to look for them. And the more you use it, the better it becomes." Unlike Beagle, Luminance is marketed as a tool for lawyers and not as a tool to replace lawyers. While the program is specifically marketed for use in mergers and acquisitions, it obviously should be useful in discovery of ESI in a much more intelligent manner than is afforded by keyword searches. If it works as marketed, Luminance should also be advantageous for discovering and correcting weaknesses in the business model of a corporation. Story Engine is intended to analyze data to build models to analyze behavior and find signs of fraud or issues that may result in litigation. It is also marketed as a program for litigation prevention and as an eDiscovery tool: "Developed by the most experienced eDiscovery startup team ever assembled, Story Engine goes beyond the four corners of a document to analyze and autonomously classify millions of documents full of unstructured data ahead of a review team. Using innovative tools like concept search, enhanced threading, and in-depth filtering, Story Engine™ actively learns what's important to the matter -- ensuring reviewers are always provided the most relevant documents without delay." Having just finished a complex case with over a million documents, most of which were generated by keyword searches and reviewed the old-fashioned way, with lawyers' eyes on every document, I can more than appreciate such a program, as will others who are routinely involved in massive ESI cases. The breadth and numbers of the artificial programs soon to be available will no doubt be presented to you through every marketing tool and sales gimmick available. At least now, when the sales rep comes to your office and asks if you are familiar with artificial intelligence, you can say "yes," or you can dumbfound the rep a little more by asking if he or she is talking about a U.S. dictionary definition or the scientific approach used in the U.K. dictionary. You may even have the ability to separate the real facts presented by the rep from the "alternative facts" which no doubt will also be presented. Meanwhile, while having already confessed to limited human intelligence in the title of this article, I return to Abacus, my Chinese bead computer. G Lloyd Gathings is a principal with Gathings Law. 12 Birmingham Bar Association


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